In , the Supreme Court issued its landmark Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka ruling, which declared that racially segregated public schools were inherently unequal. In , the Mount St. Helens volcano in Washington state exploded, leaving 57 people dead or missing.
In , T. In , Charles A. In , the Truman Doctrine was enacted as Congress appropriated military and economic aid for Greece and Turkey. In , bank robbers Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow were shot to death in a police ambush as they were driving a stolen Ford Deluxe along a road in Bienville Parish, La. In , the Brooklyn Bridge, linking Brooklyn and Manhattan, was opened to traffic. In , Kenneth L. Lay and Jeffrey K. Skilling, the chief executives who guided Enron through its spectacular rise and even more stunning fall, were found guilty of fraud and conspiracy.
In , the Senate impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson ended with his acquittal as the Senate fell one vote short of the two-thirds majority required for conviction. In , more than 2, people perished when a dam break sent water rushing through Johnstown, Pa. In , author-lecturer Helen Keller, who earned a college degree despite being blind and deaf most of her life, died in Westport, Conn. In , Chinese army troops stormed Tiananmen Square in Beijing to crush the pro-democracy movement; hundreds — possibly thousands — of people died.
In , Sen.
Robert F. Gunman Sirhan Bishara Sirhan was immediately arrested. In , the sovereign state of Vatican City came into existence as copies of the Lateran Treaty were exchanged in Rome. In , Army counsel Joseph N. Welch confronted Sen. Joseph R. At long last, have you left no sense of decency?
Books on Military History, The University Press of Kentucky | History | University of Kentucky
In , the Supreme Court issued its landmark Miranda vs. Arizona decision, ruling that criminal suspects must be informed of their constitutional rights prior to questioning by police. In , Argentine forces surrendered to British troops on the disputed Falkland Islands. In , President Roosevelt opened his New Deal recovery program, signing bank, rail, and industry bills and initiating farm aid. In , the police charged O. Simpson with murdering his former wife and a friend of hers, and then pursued him for about 50 miles along Southern California highways before he finally surrendered outside his home.
In , boxer Muhammad Ali was convicted in Houston of violating Selective Service laws by refusing to be drafted. The conviction was later overturned by the Supreme Court. In , three civil rights workers disappeared in Philadelphia, Miss. Their bodies were found buried in an earthen dam six weeks later. Eight members of the Ku Klux Klan went to prison on federal conspiracy charges; none served more than six years.
In , Lt. George A. In , the Supreme Court ruled that married same-sex couples were entitled to federal benefits and that same-sex marriages were allowed in California in a pair of major victories for the gay rights movement. In , the shuttle Atlantis and the Russian space station Mir docked, forming the largest man-made satellite ever to orbit the Earth.
In , aviator Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan disappeared over the Pacific Ocean while attempting to make the first round-the-world flight at the equator. In , the United States celebrated its Bicentential. In , the Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence.
In , Arthur Ashe became the first black man to win a Wimbledon singles title as he defeated Jimmy Connors. In , Althea Gibson became the first black tennis player to win a Wimbledon singles title, defeating fellow American Darlene Hard , By late October, Britain managed to repel the Luftwaffe, which suffered heavy losses.
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In , the abandoned United States space station Skylab made a spectacular return to Earth, burning up in the atmosphere and showering debris over the Indian Ocean and Australia. In , Democratic presidential candidate Walter F. Mondale announced he had chosen U. Geraldine A. Ferraro of New York to be his running mate; Ferraro was the first woman to run for vice president on a major party ticket.
In , a hour blackout hit the New York City area after lightning struck upstate power lines. In , the American space probe Mariner 4 flew by Mars, sending back photographs of the planet. In , an Apollo spaceship docked with a Soyuz spacecraft in orbit in the first superpower linkup of its kind. In , the Spanish Civil War began as Gen. Francisco Franco led an uprising of army troops based in Spanish North Africa. In , Sandinista rebels took control of Managua following the flight of President Anastasio Somoza Debayle, completing the defeat of the National Guard and ending the civil war in Nicaragua.
In , Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon when he stepped out of the lunar module. The conviction was later overturned. In , the Korean War armistice was signed at Panmunjom, ending three years of fighting. In , Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. World War I began as declarations of war by other European nations quickly followed. In , the USS Indianapolis, which had just delivered key components of the Hiroshima atomic bomb to the Pacific island of Tinian, was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine.
Only out of 1, men survived the sinking and shark-infested waters. In , the Olympic games opened in Berlin with a ceremony presided over by Adolf Hitler. In , the 29th president of the United States, Warren G. Harding, died in San Francisco. Calvin Coolidge took the oath of office as President of the United States.
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In , the nuclear-powered submarine Nautilus became the first vessel to cross the North Pole underwater. In , Britain declared war on Germany while the United States proclaimed its neutrality. In , the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union signed a treaty in Moscow banning nuclear tests in the atmosphere, space and underwater. In , the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, during World War II, killing an estimated , people in the first use of a nuclear weapon in warfare. In , Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin resolution, giving President Johnson broad powers in dealing with reported North Vietnamese attacks on United States forces.
In , President Nixon announced he would resign following damaging revelations in the Watergate scandal. In , three days after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, Japan, the United States exploded a nuclear device over Nagasaki, killing an estimated 74, people. In , postal employee David Berkowitz was arrested in Yonkers, N.
Berkowitz is serving six consecutive terms of 25 years to life in state prison. In , rioting and looting broke out in the predominantly black Watts section of Los Angeles. In the week that followed, 34 people were killed and more than 1, injured.
Passing the test : combat in Korea, April-June 1951
Two days later, work began on the Berlin Wall. In , India and Pakistan became independent after some years of British rule. In , James Meredith became the first black to graduate from the University of Mississippi. In , a plebiscite in Germany approved the vesting of sole executive power in Adolf Hitler as Fuhrer. In , President Eisenhower signed an executive order proclaiming Hawaii the 50th state of the union.
In , President Theodore Roosevelt became the first United States chief executive to ride in an automobile.